The DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, is a textbook put out by the American Psychiatric Association. It is based on the most current mental health clinical research and is written by over a 1000 mental health workers, including Physicians, Nurses, Researchers, Social Workers, and others. The DSM - IV essentially summarizes the current accepted diagnostic criteria (i.e., the common signs and symptoms) of psychiatric and mental illness. The behavioral signs and symptoms of illnesses such as Depression, Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety, Panic Disorder, and ADHD, to name only a few, are summarized in this extensive book. (Gorbel, Sarason, Internet).
The DSM-IV is a multiaxial classification system made up of five clinically important sets of factors or Axes, used to help summarize the diverse information related to an individual based on biology, Psychology and Social aspects of a persons condition. (Sarason).
This Axis consists of a listing of all clinical disorders except personality disorders and mental retardation. .
A few of the many disorders covered under Axis I are:.
- Disorders usually first diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence. Inclusive of Disruptive behavior, Autism and Learning Disorders.
- Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic and other Cognitive Disorders.
- Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders. Significant distortion in the perception of reality; impaired capacity to reason, speak and behave rationally or spontaneously; impaired capacity to respond with appropriate effect and motivation (e.g., delusions, hallucinations, incoherence, and social isolation). .
AXIS II .
This Axis consists of a listing of Personality disorders and mental retardation.
- These conditions begin in childhood or adolescence and continue into adult life when individuals are evaluated, these continuing characteristics, which may affect cognitive, social, or motor functioning or the ability to adapt, will be taken into consideration.