The Existence of God, The existence of evil.
There are four main arguments for the existence of god: teleological, cosmological, ontological, and moral. Each argument is fairly innovative and original. Despite this, they all are flawed and not one actually holds up to serious inspection. All the arguments attempt to prove the existence of a completely irrational being through rational means. They all fail. Because of this duality, I will explore both their positive qualities and detracting features, then look at the ultimate enigma pertaining to the existence of the Judao-Christian god: Evil.
The teleological (or design) argument works in concert with scientific thought by ethically allowing for endless scientific discovery on the premise that the scientist is discovering God's creation. The teleological argument postulates that the universe is simply just too complex a place to exist without a designer. We can look at large scale aspects like the spinning of our planet and solar system providing a completely accurate "clock", or small things like the boiling point of water being just right to sustain natural systems. One of the major champions of the view that only God could create a universe of this complexity is William Paley. Though Paley presented this argument in 1975, Plato was the first to introduce it.
The first failing of this argument is that we have no other universe to look to and say "look it is imperfect and so much more poorly designed, ours must have been created by God". For all we know this universe is the worst, most imperfect ramshackle in all existence. Secondly as David Hume put it in Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion "Even if we could validly infer a divine Designer of the world, we would still not be entitled to postulate the infinitely wise, good, and powerful god of the Judaic- Christian tradition." .
Next we look at the cosmological argument, which was first introduced by Thomas Aquinas.