Iraq: Changes during Pre and Post War.
Changes have always been an occurrence inside the borders of Iraq. Many rulers and followers have come and gone, leaving everlasting imprints on the land. The history of Iraq and its people dates back to before 3500 BC, the world's first civilization. Numerous battles were fought over this prime and fertile land, also known as Mesopotamia. War and conflict have continued on to current times. Several conflicts occurred with the Kurds during the 1960's and 70's, as the Kurdish people wanted complete autonomy in Iraq. The Republic of Iraq refused their request and the battles began, until a cease-fire was declared with the Kurds in 1964, and later in March of 1975. The Baathe party was reestablished under the ruling of Al-Bakr. After massacring the Kurds one last time, Saddam Hussein declared himself as ruler when Al-Bakr resigned. Less than a year later on September of 1980, he proclaimed war on numerous neighboring nations. He began with invading Iran; during this eight-year war it has been estimated that over 150,000 Iraqi soldiers died. The war also severely damaged the Iraqi economy. In August of 1990, Hussein lashed out on the Kurds again for their support of Iran during the war. Saddam sent Iraqi forces to Kuwait, killing hundreds until the United Nations called for Iraq to withdraw. Iraq did not leave Kuwait. Thirty-nine countries formed a coalition to remove the Iraqi troops from the foreign lands. On January 17, 1991, the coalition began bombing Iraq starting the Persian Gulf War. After Iraq was defeated, and less than a decade later, a similar scenario began with "Operation: Iraqi Freedom". Saddam was later accused of holding illegal bio-terrorist weapons, and the UN urged for the permission to inspect various sights scattered throughout Iraq. The United States gave Saddam and his sons a deadline on March 17,2003 to leave their country within 48 hours, or he would launch a military attack on Iraq.