Some parenting styles are more successful than others in encouraging the child to develop independence and self-control. Those that are most responsive to the child, with much more communication, appear to do best. Parenting styles are influenced by cultural and society standards, the parentsâ€™ economic position, childhood, and character, and the characteristics of the child.
There are three basic styles of parenting: authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative. An authoritarianâ€™s standards for good behavior are high, misconduct is firmly punished, and parent-child communication is low. They are not to be questioned by their children. If a child was to misbehave they would be punished strictly, usually physically, though they do not necessarily physically abuse their children.
Permissive parentâ€™s hardly ever punish, guide, or control their children but are nurturing and communicate well with their children. They make few demands on their children and do not show impatience with them. There is not much need for discipline because they do not ask for maturity. They want to help their children but do not feel responsible for shaping how they will turn out.
An authoritative parent sets limits and provides direction but is willing to listen to the childâ€™s ideas and make compromises. They are similar to authoritarian parents in that they set rules and limits; however they listen to their childrenâ€™s wishes and questions and talk about their thoughts and problems. They insist on age appropriate maturity but they are more nurturant and considerate, forgiving a child when maturity is not met.
Typically, authoritative parents, who are warm and loving but are willing to set and insist on sensible limits, have children who are happy, self-confident, and competent. Highly authoritarian parents are likely to raise unhappy and aggressive children, while children with very permissive parents are often even more unhappy and also are short of self-control.