Education in Pakistan

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In Pakistan, until the mid-1970s, even after General Zia came to power and the Soviet

invasion of Afghanistan began, there was the more syncretic, less purist interpretation of

Islam. This was a more modernist trend. The change after this period was perhaps

influenced by the growing dominance of purist interpretations, as well as the separation

of East Pakistan in 1971, because it showed that common adherence to Islam was not

sufficient to hold a nation together. It re-sparked the debate about identity and unity and

created a traditionalist or purist backlash.

Hunter also talked about how the Muslim world is not hermetically sealed from the rest

of the world and developments within Muslim nations occur in conjunction with

developments in the rest of the world. These developments had an impact and reaction in

countries like Pakistan. The Cold War for example had a huge impact. The third

Communist International called upon the Muslims of the east to rise up in holy war

against British imperial power, using the word "jihad . 60 years later, the west called

upon the Afghans to fight a jihad against the Soviets.

These are the debates and external developments which contributed to the development

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