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Education in Pakistan


             In Pakistan, until the mid-1970s, even after General Zia came to power and the Soviet
             invasion of Afghanistan began, there was the more syncretic, less purist interpretation of
             Islam. This was a more modernist trend. The change after this period was perhaps
             influenced by the growing dominance of purist interpretations, as well as the separation
             of East Pakistan in 1971, because it showed that common adherence to Islam was not
             sufficient to hold a nation together. It re-sparked the debate about identity and unity and
             created a traditionalist or purist backlash.
             Hunter also talked about how the Muslim world is not hermetically sealed from the rest
             of the world and developments within Muslim nations occur in conjunction with
             developments in the rest of the world. These developments had an impact and reaction in
             countries like Pakistan. The Cold War for example had a huge impact. The third
             Communist International called upon the Muslims of the east to rise up in holy war
             against British imperial power, using the word "jihad . 60 years later, the west called
             upon the Afghans to fight a jihad against the Soviets.
             These are the debates and external developments which contributed to the development
             of Islamic thought among the Muslims of India pre-Partition, and later in Pakistan.
             Pakistan is facing these issues once again with renewed urgency “ the role of Islam and
             national identity, and questions of modernization and faith “ and the debates continue to
             involve both ˜modernists' and ˜purists'. It is important to understand this context, rather
             than simply looking for a taxonomy of militant groups, because those are symptoms of
             the substantial debates common to most Muslim societies today.
             The Militant Movement “ Professor Mumtaz Ahmad
             Mumtaz Ahmad, Professor of Political Science at Hampton University, began his talk by
             saying that Pakistan has always been a


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