George Orwell uses the narrator in "Nineteen Eighty-Four" to convey to the reader an impartial account of Winston's thought, state of mind and emotional well-being.
The language used is simplistic, with little use of metaphors or even similes. The first simile, in chapter one, "gulped down like a dose of medicine", describes perfectly to the reader Winston's feelings toward the unpleasant drink, which unfortunately he feels is needed to make him feel better. It is language devices such as these that Orwell uses through the narrator to explain further to the reader Winston's feelings and not purely as devices to elevate his writing style. The use of these literary devices increases throughout the book as Winston's emotions towards the party and Big Brother formulate, harden and are then systematically crushed by O"Brien. The use of similes and metaphors changes from the descriptive, "Like a dose of medicine", to "The paperweight was the room he was in, and the coral was Julia's life and his own, fixed in a sort of eternity at the heart of the crystal", then back to the simplistic, "the earth was like iron". This helps to show Winston's changes in character, he moves through the unsure rebellious man, to one who is more hopeful of change and then back to submitting to the party.
Orwell prefers to use descriptions that are specific and naturalistic, "It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen." This opening sentence by the narrator has already placed the story for the reader. We are told that at the moment the month is April and that the world is not like ours but is similar to present day. The clocks are striking thirteen, which does not happen on conventional twelve-hour clocks, and so immediately arouses the reader's suspicion, show this. For the most part the narration is descriptive, exploring Winston's thoughts and inner psyche. When there is conversation, the reader's attention is more focused on it is content as through the book there is little of it.