Todays society is composed of a wide variety of units, such as groups, organizations, communities, families, and institutions. Those modern social organizations have been evolved over time through pre-modern societies such as pre-literate, agrarian, medieval, and industrial forms of organization. Under this certain process of evolution, the development has changed the system of society, each unit of social organizations, and transformed configuration of social organizations. .
The long evolution toward modern society has initiated from the primitive social organizations. Pre-modern societies were organized with simple system of hierarchy and economy. The family strongly tied to the economic system, which was based on symbolic level of communication, such as barter, rather than using money. Each unit of social organizations functioned based on kinship. That is, individuals were linked closely around the economic system. .
However, through the transition of previous forms of social organizations, the growth of population and the development of technology transformed the systems of society. Due to those changes, the monetary system of economy, concentration of capital, and survival for the limited resource occurred. Accordingly, the economic bases of social organizations have been more dependant on capital and self-interests rather than family kinship. Thus, the modern systems have differentiated linked individuals in society; the economic sphere is separated from private kinship relations. The kinship does not essentially function any more in contemporary social organizations. .
In addition, as to the social order, Durkheim sees the emechanical solidarity as of pre-industrial societies rested on shared beliefs and values, located primarily in the econscious collective. However, the advent of industrial society sees the emergence of a new form of eorganic solidarity, based on interdependence arising out of socialization and differentiation (1998: 618).