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How to Notate Essay References

             Adapted from Palgrave and Continuum Publishers' guidelines.
             There are two main systems in use for providing references and other notes to the text:.
             1. To provide, in the text, parenthesized, abbreviated details of sources quoted or referred to, e.g. (Jones 1993:10), with a corresponding bibliography. This system is generally referred to as Harvard referencing and is our preferred style in most cases. If Harvard referencing is used, the inclusion of explanatory notes should be reserved to clarify or illuminate in more detail a point made in the text (i.e. superscript note markers in the relevant places within the text, and corresponding numbered notes at the end of the essay).
             2. To provide details of sources quoted or referred to (as well as any explanatory notes) in a set of numbered notes with just superscript numbers in the relevant places in the text. These are numbered sequentially starting again from 1 in each chapter. Usually if this system is used there is not a separate bibliography and full bibliographical details are included in the notes. This system is sometimes called Vancouver referencing and, in older books, sometimes square bracketed numbers [1] were used rather than superscript ones.
             Make sure that each reference in the text has an entry in the Bibliography.
             For articles in journals you should list:.
             The author's name.
             The date in parentheses.
             The title of the article in quotes.
             The name or accepted abbreviation of the journal in italic .
             The volume number.
             The issue number if the volume is not paginated continuously.
             The page number(s). For example:.
             Black, Elizabeth (1993) 'Metaphor, simile and cognition in Golding's The Inheritors'. Language and Literature, 2 (1): 37-48.
             For books you should list:.
             The author's initials and name.
             The date in parentheses.
             The title of the book in italic .
             The volume number or edition where relevant.
             The place of publication and/or name of the publisher.

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