Theory links up the research and the problem, which is examined in the research. Theory allows the researchers a streamline of action. It is a set of logical, coherent, interrelated concepts, which attempt to explain some observable phenomena or group of facts.
Review of the literature provides awareness of the facts and researcher gets a guideline for the inquiry of the problem. Theory is a systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that are related to particular aspects of life.
Before presenting the literature of deviance, it is essential to make it clear that whatever theories about crime are explained that is also appropriate to the occurrence of deviance. There are no separate theories of deviance for the explanation about pros and cons of deviance and deviant behavior. The criminologist and sociologists commonly agree upon the view that the contributory factors are the same for crime and deviance. So it is reasonable to remark that the theories reported to crime may be also considered true for deviance.
In the 14th Century Italy, the idea of free will started to gain ground. It was generally thought that people should be held responsible for their behaviour and not any other supernatural power. Therefore one who violates law deserves to be punished. .
Beccaria (1738-1794) was a leading figure of the classical school. His work has a great influence on the contemporary thinking about the nature of crime and punishment. .
Classical thought was originally conceived in the eighteenth century. It had several basic elements:.
- People are free to choose means to satisfy their needs.
- Criminal solution may be more attractive than conventional.
- Fear of society's reaction may control a person's criminal solution.
- The more severe, certain and swift the reaction, the better it can control criminal behavior.
- Sufficient punishment is an attractive choice to prevent crime.
Finally, the Classical School of Criminology stresses that the punishment should fit the crime committed.