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Judges in American Federal and State Systems


            Explain how judges are selected in the Federal and in state systems across the United States. What factors will be likely to determine the viability of a judicial candidate under any system?.
             United States of America is a federal republic with a division of powers (legislative, executive and judiciary) between the federal authorities and the state authorities. The range of independence held by states is a very disputable question which historically raised many conflicts (the most vivid being the American Civil War). Each state has slightly different legal system, however the highest court in U.S (Supreme Court) has a jurisdiction over whole territory of the country. As it was mentioned, there are two main court systems in America: a federal court system and a state court system. A federal court system has jurisdiction over cases such as violating federal regulations (taxes, civil rights, etc), international disputes, intellectual property issues, bankruptcy matters and disputes between states to mention just a few. A state court system has jurisdiction over family law issues, property law issues, professional malpractice issues, personal injury lawsuits and regulation of motor vehicules cases. .
             There is a hierarchy of courts in United States. At the lowest level in hierarchy are trial courts which are responsible for handling civil and criminal cases. However some cases might be found too complex or unsuitable to be resolved under the trial court's jurisdiction. Higher in hierarchy are appellate courts which have the right to reexamine the case that was previously handled by the trial court. Each party has the right to appeal to such court. At the top of the hierarchy is the Supreme Court. Encyclopedia Britannica states: "┬áThe Supreme Court is a final court of appeal and final expositor of the Constitution of the United States. Within the framework of litigation, the Supreme Court marks the boundaries of authority between state and nation, state and state, and government and citizen.


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