The percent recovery of n-Butyl bromide by nucleophilic substitution and extraction was tested in the current experiment. Sodium bromide was reacted with n-Butyl alcohol and sulfuric acid, forming n-Butyl bromide via an SN2 reaction mechanism. Reflux was used to condensate the vapors and return the condensate back to the system allowing the mixture to be heated to an elevated temperature for an extended period of time without the loss of material. Since n-Butyl bromide is immiscible in water, the method of extraction by differing solubilities was used to separate the water miscible components. The starting materials were weighed, and the product was weighed to calculate the yield. The amount of product (n-Butyl bromide) collected was observed to be 11.09g, while the theoretical yield was 14.97g. The percent yield was calculated to be 74.1%% recovery. .
Alkyl halides are a particular class of organic compounds whose structural components include a halogen attached to an alkyl group (general formula R-X). Though there exists quite a number of methods with regard to the synthesis of these alkyl halides, the most common of the variety is through the replacement of the hydroxyl group on an alcohol.
The main objective of this experimental procedure was to observe the said synthesis reactions, and through the process gain a familiarity with the reaction mechanisms that make these syntheses possible, the focus of which for the purposes of this experiment will primarily be centered on nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reactions, which can be further classified between SN1 and SN2 reactions. A technique called extraction was also used in this experiment. The method of extraction is used to separate components in a mixture with differing solubilities in water. Water is added and drained to remove polar impurities, followed by the addition of an acid and a base to break down or neutralize any remaining impurities, increasing their solubility in the aqueous phase.