A conflict regarding John Adam's midnight judges and the Judiciary Act of 1801: William Marbury was one of several judges who had been promised a seat by John Adams, but never received a commission. James Madison, the Secretary of State under the Jefferson administration did not deliver the remaining commissions, and as a result, Marbury sued him, urging the Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the ethical solution would be for Madison to deliver the commission, however the Supreme Court had no authority to order him to do so because according to the Constitution, the Supreme Court does not have original jurisdiction over cases regarding writs of mandamus. The Judiciary Act of 1789 which granted the court original jurisdiction over these matters was declared unconstitutional, thereby establishing the principle of judicial review. .
1804-1805 Lewis and Clark expedition.
After the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory from France, Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, along with William Clark to scout the new land. Their assignment was to trace the Missouri River to its source, and ultimately find a water route to the Pacific, while obtaining samples of vegetation and information. Aided by French-Canadian fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau and his native American wife Sacajawea, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific 18 months later, and successfully returned to Jefferson with the news. .
1804 The Twelfth Amendment .
This amendment established separate votes in the Electoral College for president and vice president in order to prevent a scenario similar to the election of 1800, a Jefferson-Burr tie, which forced a series of tiebreaking votes. .
1804 Northern confederacy scheme- Essex Junto.
Prior to the 1804 election, a group of New England Federalists feared losing influence to Republicans, who were gaining support due to the success of the Louisiana Purchase.