Experimental evidence suggests a difference in intelligence between males and females. Males show strengths in mathematical and reasoning tests, while females demonstrate strengths in verbal and social situations. Yet, the difference in intelligence is not biological, but rather social. The origin of these differences is found in separate roles and positions in society. A combination of numerous experiments demonstrates that the gender differences in intelligence stem from social forces rather than genetic make-up; these social forces include gender roles, self-conception, outside influence, education, and personality.
Intelligence is defined as the capacity to know and understand, or simply, intellect. This definition is a standard that is universally applied to all cultures. However, every society's perception of intelligence is extraordinarily different. Nancy Frazier (1973) suggests that the true American definition of intelligence is a male norm, meaning mathematical and spatial abilities are considered the best representation of intelligence. This type of intelligence is seen in business, science and technology. Yet, in truth, Frazier explains that intelligence encompasses far more than the ability to reason; the social side of intelligence, which is generally female intelligence, is consistently ignored. Lewis Barcombe expands on Frazier's views of intelligence through studies on emotional intelligence (1983). Emotional intelligence, such as counseling, intellectual understanding and interpersonal intelligence is labeled as insignificant in American culture when compared to the respect for technological advance. .
In support of this study, Riordan conducted his own study on children's consideration of job respect. Doctors received the highest score, which is a profession dominated 87% by males. Counselors and teachers received severely low scores, which are 70% female dominated.