Male circumcision has been done around the world since the era of B. It was done solely as a sign of the covenant man made with God. Today's society has added more reasons such as appearance of the penis, culture, and hygiene reasons. For the past 2,000 years females have had this procedure done to them as well. Female circumcision however is done in different procedures and has many "purposes" as to why this practice takes place.
Female circumcision, commonly known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is practiced in over 30 countries in the world. The procedure first appeared in the countries of Africa. Among the Samburu tribe of Kenya, girls are generally circumcised at the age of 14 or 15, usually just before they get married. It is estimated that 90% or more of the girls in Djibouti, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and North Sudan have been mutilated. There are over 30 million women living in Nigeria that have been mutilated and 24 million in Ethiopia. The estimating of women who have gone through FGM has totaled up to about 114 to 130 million women a year.
There are three procedures that can be done to accomplish the task of female genital mutilation. The first procedure is called Sunna Circumcision. This method is characterized by the removal of the tip of the clitoris and/or its covering (prepuce).
The second procedure is called Clitoridectomy. This is the technique where the entire clitoris, the prepuce and adjacent labia are removed. The third and most extreme procedure of all is called Infibulation which is also known as Pharaonic circumcision. It is the same as the clitoridectomy in addition with the sewing up of the vulva. A small opening is left opened for the flow of urine and menstrual flow. A second operation is done later on in life to reverse some of the damage. Other procedures are done but they have no common name to classify themselves. Some miscellaneous procedures include pricking, piercing, stretching, or the incision of the clitoris and/or labia as well as the vaginal walls.