Female circumcision is just recently becoming an issue. This practice has been going on for centuries in the African and Arabic communities. This practice is done to keep women "pure" before they are married. In most cases it is done in unsanitary conditions using razor blades, scissors, kitchen knives, and pieces of glass. These instruments are some times not even sterilized properly and some times are used on others with out being cleaned. As a result women are infected with viruses like HIV and other infections. Anesthesia is also not used so these women are mostly wide-awake during this procedure. Many women die from hemorrhage or shock. There are three primary ways that the circumcision is done. The first is the removal of the tip of the clitoris. The second is when there is removal of the entire clitoris and adjacent labia. The last and most sever is when consists of the removal of the clitoris, the adjacent labia. The scraped sides of the vulva are then joined across the vagina. This is done with either thorns, or sewn together. A small opening is then left to let urine and menstrual blood flow through. This is un-done on the wedding night and then re-stitched after. The age of this procedure is sometimes done as young as three. There are long-term effect such as genital malformation, chronic pelvic complications, and urinary infections. When a woman is pregnant she has to have her stitching loosened because the child could crush its skull in the damage birth canal. .
The government has no way of monitoring this practice, even though it is outlawed in many places. Many women are unwilling to stop this custom because they feel it is tradition. Most of them are unaware of the danger that is involved. Countries like the USA have stepped in to try to put an end to this practice by making women and families aware of the dangers.