Marx's theories were by no means a mere critique on political economy. Although many believed them to be so, they were not this limited. In fact, Marx addressed an array of topics making his, a comprehensive cultural study. The seemingly separated and unrelated spheres of socio economics and culture are linked by what Marx defined as Ideology. The capitalist society adeptly secured itself through ways of thinking that were encouraged or some would say imposed by the social structures it created. Ideology, then, was the beliefs, opinions, and writings in their totality, which characterised these social practices. The prevailing ideas of a given historical period are attributed to the dominant class of that time. However, the workings of ideology go beyond sheer cultural trends. The term ideology, then, refers to the inescapable forces that drive a society. Most people would be completely and utterly unaware of these socio-economic forces but it is these, which permeate every aspect of their lives.
One of the most enduring themes in Marxism is the insistence on history and the realization that society and cultural reality are not static. Quite the contrary, they are forever progressing. Thus the creation of art, including literature must always be understood in relation to capitalist productivity and consumerism and additionally always in a historical context. A piece of literary work, then, is inevitably conditioned by the society that produced it, thus it cannot be stripped of the value inherent in it. Literary texts are amid a web of cultural relations and so; their meaning lies in their relation to the rest of culture. As a product of culture itself, literature reflects these socio-economic factors intrinsic in it. Indeed, most of the time, authors regardless of their intentions are completely oblivious to the fact that they are unconsciously advocating, in some way or another an aspect or more of the prevalent ideology of their time.