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Plains Indians

             The American Plains Indians are among the best known of all Native Americans. These played a significant role in shaping the history of the West. Some of the more noteworthy Plains Indians were Big Foot, Black Kettle, Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, Sitting Bull, and Spotted Tail.
             Big Foot.
             Big Foot (? 1825-1890) was also known as Spotted Elk. Born in the northern Great Plains, he eventually became a Minneconjou Teton Sioux chief. He was part of a tribal delegation that traveled to Washington, D.C., and worked to establish schools throughout the Sioux Territory. He was one of those massacred at Wounded Knee in December 1890 (Bowman, 1995, 63).
             Black Kettle.
             Black kettle (? 1803-1890) was born near the Black Hills in present-day South Dakota. He was recognized as a southern Cheyenne peace chief for his efforts to bring peace to the region. However, his attempts at accommodation were not successful and his band was massacred at Sand Creek in 1864. Even though he continued to seek peace, he was killed with the remainder of his tribe in the Washita Valley of Oklahoma in 1868. (Bowman, 1995, 67).
             Crazy Horse.
             Crazy Horse (? 1842-1877) was also born near the Black Hills. His father was a medicine man; his mother was the sister of Spotted Tail. He was recognized as a skilled hunter and fighter. Crazy Horse believed he was immune from battle injury and took part in all the major Sioux battles to protect the Black Hills against white intrusion. He was named supreme war and chief of the Oglalas in 1876 and led the Sioux and Cheyenne to victory at the battle of Rosebud in January that year.
             Perhaps he is most remembered for leading the Sioux and Cheyenne in the battle of the Little Bighorn, where his warriors defeated Custer's forces. Crazy horse is regarded as the greatest leader of the Sioux and a symbol of their heroic resistance. (Bowman, 1995, 160-161).
             Red Cloud.
             Red Cloud (1822-1909) was born near the Platte River in present "day Nebraska.

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