The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. The Organization officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other countries had ratified the Charter. .
The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United Nations. It sets out the rights and obligations of Member States, and establishes the Organization's main parts and procedures. .
The purposes of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these principles.
The six principal parts of the United Nations are the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. The United Nations family, however, is much larger; encompassing 15 agencies and several programs and bodies. .
One of the primary purposes of the United Nations is the maintaining of international peace and security. Since its creation, the United Nations has often been called upon to prevent disputes from escalating into war, to persuade opposing parties to use the conference table rather than force of arms, or to help restore peace when conflict does break out. Over the decades, the United Nations has helped to end numerous conflicts, often through actions of the Security Council " the primary organ for dealing with issues of international peace and security.