Genetically modified organisms (GMO) can be defined as organisms which DNA has been transformed by the insertion of one or more genes (trans-genes) in a way that doesn't exist in the nature. These genes may be transferred from not related species: animal genes may be transferred to plants, bacteria genes to plants or human genes to animals. Living organisms that have been created in that way are able to mutate and reproduce.
The subject of GMO in food and agriculture is highly controversial. Although, genetic modification is generally seen as a tool offering potential benefits to farmers and consumers in a wide range of food and agriculture areas, there is concern about the potential impacts on human health and on the environment.
GMO is being brought into circulation because of its benefits for producers and consumers, that is: getting products with lower price, longer durability and higher nutrition content. The preliminary goal of researches on GMO was the improvement of the crops" protection. Current GMO products on the food market are characterized by: improved resistance to diseases spread or caused by insects and viruses (insertion of genes which produce toxins descended from Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria), and improved resistance to herbicides.
Supporters of this technology claim that dissemination of GMO products would allow to increase production, which is very important in the Third World countries. It can be achieved by the insertion of genes which increase the yield and allow to cultivate in unfavorable soil and climate conditions and elimination of the harvest decline caused by insects and diseases. Insertion of the herbicide resistant genes would decrease the consumption of the plants" protective chemicals and limit the pollution. .
Other benefits come from the extension of the trade usefulness of the crops: e.g. tomatoes with the "hardness" gene can be stored in the temperature 68-93oF for 2 months.