This essay will be focusing on genetically modified organisms also known as a transgenic organism, genetically modifying organisms for our benefit. The first people able to directly manipulate genes were Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973 with the use of the new-found biotechnology. Genetically modifying organisms are usually to benefit us and are a much faster and practical process than selectively breeding generations of crops that might not even have the traits you are looking for. This practice originated in 1871 when Louis pastor applied eponymous pasteurization to milk, to improve food safety. The commercial use of GMO's only started in 1994 despite being discovered years before.
1. To genetically modify and organism you need first to find and isolate the desired gene you wish to pass on to another organism. .
2. We then need to insert that gene into bacteria, not any bacteria but the naturally occurring soil bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefactions. The gene is inserted into the plasmid of the bacteria where it will start cloning/multiplying until we have the desired amount of that gene.
3. We then retrieve the desired DNA by screening unwanted cells from the mixture and then use gel electrophoresis to separate the remaining genes by movement on an electric grid.
The GMO Industry.
The truth is you have probably consumed a genetically modified organism as they have grown largely in the market for the last decade. 75% of processed food in America is genetically modified. "The accumulated global value of biotech crops since 1996 is estimated at US$133,541 billion" That should give you a perspective on how large the market of GMO has grown in a single decade. .
The Ethics Behind GMO.
The majority of all genetically modified organisms have been modified solely for our benefits. However, there may be a few anomalies like people attempting to cross species or inject potentially lethal genes into sentient organisms.