Affirmative Action is used in most college and university admission policies all over the United States. Policies state, Affirmative Action is applied to achieve a well diverse class that will enable students to become educationally and socially advanced, due to contributions of the different types of students around them. An underrepresented minority, therefore, does have an upper hand and a better chance of being admitted into an institution of higher education than a, student of the white' race. There should not be any kind of separation between races and race should not at all be considered in the admission policies of these institutions. Affirmative Action in university and college admissions does not take a progressive stance for higher education and a well diverse student body can be achieved through other methods. .
When a university admissions policy focuses on race and ethnic backgrounds as one of the central factors in the decision making process, the university is being "race conscious."" There are two types of race consciousness, one is where there is an individual consideration of race and the other is when the sole consideration for admittance, is the race of the student. In the case Barbara Grutter, Petitioner v. Lee Bollinger, et al. a white, female applicant, who was a residence of Michigan, did not get into the University of Michigan Law School; she fought the decision, with the case of there being a "race conscious- admissions policy. The university's attention to achieving a diverse student body is through individual assessment of each candidate. .
There is no constitutional objection to the goal of considering race as one modest factor among many others to achieve diversity, but an educational institution must ensure, through sufficient procedures, that each applicant receives individual consideration and that race does not become a predominant factor in the admissions decision making.