Niccolo Machiavelli was from the elite class in Renaissance Florence. During this time Italy divided into city-states that was threatened by French and Spainish invasions. Machiavelli wrote The Prince (1513) to call for united efforts to defend Italy from these powerful countries. Using his argumentative analyses, Machiavelli instructs the prince on how to maintain his power and his state. He advised the prince to be constantly ready for war, not always keep his promises, and try to appear good all the time. .
Military preparations and experiences are very important to maintain a prince's power. Machiavelli affirms a prince "must not have any other object nor any other thought, nor must he take anything as his profession but war, its institution, and its discipline; because that is the only profession which befits one who commands." (36). Armed men have the power to deal with most issues and solve most problems. Machiavelli defines an armed man as a person who always trains himself both in action and mind. He has to get used to physical obstacles, understand his own country well, its strength and weaknesses, and always improve his knowledge of military matters. Machiavelli takes the example of Philopoemon, Prince of the Achaeans who often discussed with his friends how to deal with specific war situations. Furthermore, a prince needs to learn from others' victories and defeats. Over the long history of the world, there have been many lessons learned from wars. A powerful army can be defeated when it is not ready. That is why a prince has to get ready for wars and trains himself extensively to solve any problems. A leader will not have power if his country does not have military security. A leader has to be able to protect his country in order to maintain his position. Machiavelli has a very effective way to introduce and prove his idea. He uses both examples of good leaders, like Francesco Sforza and Philopoemon, and unsuccessful people like Sforza's sons.