Beginning of 17th century, European crop and livestock started making significant impacts on the landscape. Disease and armed conquest had ravaged the native people of the New World. Several hundred thousand enslaved Africans worked in the Caribbean and Brazilian sugar plantations. .
2. Spain dominated the New World.
A. England's Imperial Stirrings.
1. 1500s, England made weak attempts to colonize. Religious conflict disrupted England when King Henry VIII broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant Reformation was launched. Elizabeth ascended to power in 1558, England is Protestant and the rivalry with Catholic Spain intensifies.
2. Ireland fueled the rivalry. Catholic Irish sought Spanish aid in overthrowing Elizabeth. Elizabeth crushed them. Catholic Irish lands were confiscated and new Protestant landlords were given these lands. Bitter feelings stayed with the Irish and English. .
B. Elizabeth Energizes England.
1. Queen Elizabeth encouraged English buccaneers to raid the Spanish shipping lanes and settlements, even though the two were at peace. Famous buccaneer; Sir Francis Drake.
2. Newfoundland was England's 1st attempt at colonization. It failed when promoter Sir Humphrey Gilbert died. Gilbert's brother, Sir Walter Raleigh tried again, landed on North Carolina's Roanoke Island. Colony mysteriously vanished. .
3. While England failed at colonization, Spain thrived. Philip II used the profits from his colonies to build the "Invincible Armada." 1588, English ships defeat the Spanish fleet. "Invincible Armada" is devastated; marked the beginning of the end of the Spanish empire. .
4. With decline of Spanish superiority, England began dominating the seas; greatly affected America. England resembled pre-imperialistic Spain. England flourished, literature evolved; led by Shakespeare. Nationalism and imperialistic spirit grew in England. .
5. 1604-England and Spain sign peace treaty. .
C. England on the Eve of Empire.