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Gratz v. Bollinger

             Jennifer Gratz applied at the University of Michigan and was denied admission. The University admitted that they use races as a factor of admission decisions. "Concluding that diversity was a compelling interest, the District Court held that the admissions policies for years 1995-1998 were not narrowly tailored, but that the policies in effect in 1999 and 2000 were narrowly tailored." After that decisions Gratz and Patrick Hamacher, another applicant who was denied admission, petitioned for the U.S. Supreme court to "Rule 11 for the writ of certiorari," and they granted it. .
             Decision (6-3).
             William H. Rehnquist - (Concurring) Chief Justice.
             John Paul Stevens - (Dissent) Associate Justice.
             Sandra Day O"Conner - (Concurring) Associate Justice.
             Antonin Scalia - (Concurring) Associate Justice.
             Anthony Kennedy - (Concurring) Associate Justice.
             David H. Souter - (Dissent) Associate Justice.
             Clarence Thomas - (Concurring) Associate Justice.
             Ruth Bader Ginsberg - (Dissent) Associate Justice.
             Stephen G. Breyer - (Concurring) Associate Justice.
             Question Presented.
             Does the University of Michigan's use of racial preferences in undergraduate admissions violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment or Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?.
             Yes. The court said that the Universities use of racial preferences for undergraduate admission was in violation of the Equal Protection Clause and Title VI.
             Dissenting Opinion.
             Justice Stevens" Opinion - Neither petitioner had reapplied to the University and they are already enrolled in other schools so they would receive no benefit from this case.
             Justice Souters Opinion - Agreed with Justice Stevens, and he said, "I also add a word to say that even if the merits were reachable, I would dissent from the Court's judgment.".
             Justice Ginsberg's Opinion - Difficult to understand (Trackstar).

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