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            Cases of Induced Abortions by Teenagers without Parental Notice or Consent.
             Substantial numbers of pregnant adolescents do not consult either their mother or father prior to obtaining an abortion. A Minnesota study found that 43% of adolescents obtaining abortions used the court bypass option to avoid disclosure to a parent. (Factors Associated with the Use of Court Bypass by Minors to Obtain Abortions, RW Blum et al, Family Planning Perpectives 22:158, July/Aug 1990.) Male partners have been found to be more likely to be consulted than parents once pregnancy is confirmed (83% v. 56%). (Patterns of Consultation Among Adolescent Minors Obtaining An Abortion, MD Resnick et al, Amer. J. Orthopsychiatr. 64:310, April,1994.) An Atlanta study of adolescents obtaining abortions at five different private facilities found that 51% confided in their parents. (Parental Consent: Factors Influencing Adolescent Disclosure Regarding Abortion, MS Griffin-Carlson, KJ Macklin, Adolescence 28(109):1,Spring,1993.) According to the Centers for Disease Control, 20% of the reported abortions in the U.S. are among those who are 19 years of age or less. (Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Data-United States,1993, MMWR 45(11):235, Mar 22,1996.).
             The following reported cases involve situations where neither parent was notified or aware that their adolescent daughter had obtained an abortion.
             Claims of Physical Injury.
             In Baldaraz v. Granbury School District, the parents of a 17-year-old high school student brought suit in U.S. District Court in Fort Worth, Texas, after she suffered a uterine infection and psychological distress following an abortion without her parents' knowledge. According to the complaint, a high school drug awareness counselor discovered that the girl was pregnant and called her out of class to urge her to have an abortion. The suit detailed elaborate plans made by the counselor in order to procure the abortion.

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