Throughout time there have been many different ideas and approaches as to what.
One way to explain behavior is through learning. There are.
two types of learning theories, both based in terms of conditioning - classical.
conditioning and operand conditioning.
Classical conditioning, created by Ivan Pavlov's work, is the concept of.
learning through association, and there being a stimulus and a response. Ivan.
Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who was researching the digestive system, on.
dogs. When the dogs were shown food, they produced more saliva. Pavlov noticed.
that the dogs actually started producing more saliva when the door to the food.
was opened. This showed that the dogs had associated the door with food. they.
had learned a link between the door and salivating - their reflex response.
Therefore, in this instance, the stimulus was food, the response was.
salivating. No learning occurs here as it is a natural reflex, it is described.
as unconditioned. The door opening has no direct response, but because the dogs.
learn to associate the door opening with food, their reflex response.
(salivation) occurs. This is classical conditioning.
The second learning theory is Operant Conditioning, which is based on trial and.
error rather than association. Unlike classical conditioning, it concentrates.
on the effects of behavior rather than the behavior itself. Edward Thorndike.
started with the approach of instrumental learning, using a cat. He placed a.
hungry cat in a latched box, hung a fish nearby and watched the cat try to get.
out of the box. Eventually, after meowing, clawing etc., the cat accidentally.
tripped the latch and escaped. When it was placed back in the box, the cat went.
through the same behavior, but got out of the box quicker. After more.
repetitions of this trial, the cat learned exactly what to do in order to get.
out of the box, and flicked the latch immediately.