Both the Red River Rebellion and the Northwest Rebellion were caused by a combinaton of economic and cultural factors.
Even at the very begining there was obvious culture clash between the Europeans and the Natives. Their different customes on trading were the start of conflict between the two. When the Europeans would come across a Native Tribe, they would be offered gifts, such as fur or food. The Natives gave these gifts expecting the Europeans to, in turn, feel obligated to assist them against their enemies. Since the Europeans did not understand this agreement, they were viewed by the Natives as traitors. This was an almost impossible opinion to change from then on.
The Metis were increasingly threatend by the Hudson's Bay Company monopoly of the fur trade. That, coupled with the fact that the number of buffalo were steadily declining, lead the Metis to eventually rebel.
By the mid 19th century, cultural conflicts between the Metis and the Euro-Canadians were increasing. Presbyterian Scot's Settlers language and culture were in the minority as compared to the Metis population of French-speaking Roman Catholics. This contributed to a serious clash of interests in the region of Central Canada.
The number of buffalo declined as interest grew in the sale of buffalo hides to fill the demand in North American and European markets. This, along with the introduction of he horse and firearms in Metis culture, had an adverse influence in thier way of life.
The Red River Rebellion (1869-1870) was the first crisis the new government faced after Canadian Conferation in 1867. The Canadian government bought the settlement from the Hudsn's Bay Company in 1869, and appointed an English-speaking governor to survey the land before it was officialy transferred. The Metis, led by Louis Riel, opposed the survey that arranged land according to the square townships system. They believed in thier own seigneurial system of land division.