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American history

            Each era in America has brought on change and challenged the traditional way of doing things. In the 1880's through 1890's with changes in the way business conducted and in the way of politics. In the 1920's through the 1940's with the new woman and isolationism, in the changes 1950's through the 1960's with the growth of the suburbs and civil rights. .
             In the 1880's there was a massive growth in business, before this time businesses were own by one or two people. After the Civil War, it became harder and harder for theses types of business to survive, because they did not have the ability to mass-produce their products. The owners started to consolidate with larger companies, which turned in to large corporations. Two pioneers of business were John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. John D Rockefeller controlled the oil industry by using horizontal integration; he controlled all of the oil industry. Andrew Carnegie controlled the steel industry by using vertical integration; the practice of controlling every phase of production by owning the sources of raw materials and the transportation facilities needed to distribute the product, it was a means of gaining a competitive edge over rival companies. The Gilded age was a formative era for American politics Congress made laws to break up monopolies and regulate railroad prices with the passing of the Sherman Anti-trust Act and the Interstate Commerce Act. This was a time also when the traditionalist tried to stop the changes that were occurring they were able to get some states to pass "blue laws" which prohibited anyone from doing business on Sundays, and lotteries were outlawed. By the year 1890, 43 out of the 44 states had passed "blue laws". The extreme example of these types of laws when congress passed the Compstock Act, which prohibited the mailing of obscene literature, this law was used to prevent the distribution of birth control information and contraceptives through the mail.

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