An allegory is a story that contains two or more levels of meaning and one or more symbolic levels. Authors often incorporate allegories into their work in order to enhance the quality of the reading experience. "Lord of the Flies" by William Golding is a wonderful novel in which through the use of various literary elements and techniques the author crafts an allegory with many levels of meaning for the reader to interpret.
Throughout the story, Golding uses characterization to show the many different aspects of modern society and its shaping factors. One character, Piggy, is a young, pudgy boy with very poor vision, requiring glasses. Piggy and his glasses come to represent an effigy of clear-sightedness, reasoning, and rational thinking. Another representation of the bright side of society is Ralph. Ralph is voted chief of the island and utilizes a conch as devices to convene meetings/ instill order. Both Ralph and the conch become a symbol of organization, authority, and democracy. The darker side of man is shown through other characters. Jack Merridew is a boy who more and more through the story becomes evil, ignoring rules of normal society and increasing hatefulness towards others Eventually he becomes a symbol of heartlessness, evil, and savagery. Another boy, Roger, is also a symbol evil. At one point in the book he coldly kicks sand in a young boys face, and continues to do so in order to fulfill a sick, sadistic satisfaction he gets from causing harm to others. Through characterization, the author creates several levels of meaning in order to create an allegory.
Symbolism is used heavily to make "Lord of the Flies" an allegorical work. The island itself is a symbol of the earth and all the different societies and cultures that make it up. The "scar" in the forest represents the destruction of man, both on nature and on fellow man. The imaginary "beast" becomes a symbol of the dark, eerie side of man and our natural animal instinct, deep down inside.