Stonehenge is a monument in England that has raised questions throughout its history. These questions involve who built Stonehenge and for what purpose. In addition, there have been questions about what Stonehenge was built of, what it looked like, and how it should be restored.
Stonehenge is located in southern England 75 miles south-southwest of London. This location is found on the Salisbury Plain 8 miles north of the city of Salisbury. The English Channel is located 30 miles west of Stonehenge.
The Druids built Stonehenge. The Druids were a group of Celtic priests, medicine people, lawgivers, and judges. These people were from isolated tribes scattered throughout the fields and forests of southern England. The Druids herded animals and farmed for a living. Flint axes, deer antlers, and hammer stones are some of the tools used in their daily lives.
The stones that make up Stonehenge are called sarsons, sandstones, and bluestones. These stones were brought from the Preseli Mountains in Wales 135 miles away in 2600 B.C. They were also brought from Marlborough Downs 25 miles to the north. The bluestones were thought to heal disease and to hold the spirits of dead ancestors. The larger of the stones weigh up to 50 tons and the smallest stones weigh up to 5 tons. Most of the stones stand 25 feet tall or more.
Stonehenge was built in three stages. Stage 1 of Stonehenge was built about 1800 B.C. Stage 1 included an outer circular ditch and a ring of 56 pits immediately inside the ditch. The 56 pits are known as the Aubury Holes. In stage 1 a 35-ton Heel stone was placed leading from the northeastern break in the ditch. Stage 2 of Stonehenge was built in the 17th century B.C. Inside the ditch were two concentric circles. The concentric circles were never finished and later dismantled. Stage 3 of Stonehenge was built in 1600 B.C. 80 large blocks of sarson were moved to the site. These sarson stones were erected in a circle of 30 uprights capped by a continuous ring of 5-ton lintels.