In all areas of life, organisations are expected to keep up with the world changes which are moving faster which seem to more and more a challenge each day. This is extremely obvious in large organisations and this is why the organisations must be able to change. "Change" is a plan and process to implement and manage change within an organisation. Large organisations need to keep pace with change for reason of competition and survival and the operations in large organisations are changing because of the pressure arising externally to the large organisation operations, that is, from the operating and macro management e.g. technology, competition, or government policy. It also can arise internally, that is, the pressure within the organisation, e.g. from management or staff observation of existing processes. Both of the pressures focus attention on changes to secure performance improvements. This can occur by individual and combinations of the pressures for change. Organisations respond with initiatives to change people, for example reshaping employees or the attitudes to work, structures as flatter organisational hierarchies, and systems as the use of new technology or environments within the organisation. These initiatives may from part of a production process, as with the total quality management, and business process of downsizing.
There are a number of change ways how change should be managed. Kurt Lewin, the American psychologist, describes the processes for effective change occurs at three levels. The first phase is to unfreezing the present situation; this involves destroying the present system. New goals need to be set and the staff must adapt to the idea of change. The second phase is moving to a new state; this involves the actual moving process to move the organisation to another level. The managers in charge of change need to keep reassuring staff of why the organisation needs to change and the advantages after that change process has occurred affected.