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Management Styles in the Criminal Justice System

             This research paper addressed and discussed the three types of management styles and its role within an organization. Specifically, these management styles are the scientific management, human relations management, and the systems management. Though the early styles, scientific management and human relations management were acceptable for the times in which they were developed. Neither was perfect. Hence, today both exist in modified forms. However, both are being replaced in many organizations by a new style-systems management. This is due to recent changes and the criminal justice organizations are demanding a more strategic management who can lead and manage the criminal justice system. This has placed increased pressure not just on the criminal justice managers but also to other criminal justice employees to be more productive and innovative and change oriented. .
             Management Styles.
             According to Gerald Lynch (2006), the history of criminal justice system management can be divided into three types and time periods: .
             1. Scientific Management (1900–1940).
             2. Human Relations Management (1930–1970).
             3. Systems Management (1965–present).
             1. Scientific Management.
             Scientific management has perhaps received the most recognition and study. It was the dominant orientation in the pre-union (1900–1940s) industrialization era. The dominant writers on the scientific management approach were persons such as Taylor (1911), Fayol (1949), and Gulick & Urwick (1937). Their writings are still central in the early training of contemporary managers.
             The basic orientation of scientific management is that "people are replaceable" and should be treated as if "they are parts in a machine." It is, as Rogers and Agarwala-Rogers (1976) describe it, a "mechanistic view of behavior" (p. 30). People should be pushed or driven like machines, it is argued, as they were treated as if they were cogs in a machine that could be replaced if the job was not done well.

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