In the year 1796 Napoleon and his army crossed the borders of Italy, and in three years all country was conquered. French control on Italy had reaching effects and results. The power of the Church and the Pope over society was reduced, changes on landownership were done and the land redistributed among the society. This helped to agriculture's improvement, as French interest in agricultural products. A new middle class appeared. Communication through the land was improved, new roads were built across the Alps and the Appenines. Italian laws were standardized and new French legal codes of civil and commercial were introduced. The most important among these refreshment process representative government was introduced. Little sovereigns were gathered and Italian boundaries were rearranged. The state was divided into three parts only, as Piedmont, Kingdom of Italy and Kingdom of Naples. .
All these developments gave a change to the new middle class to discuss on politics, share their opinions and put their thoughts into action. The new social life of Italy gave an encouragement to the idea of Italian nationalism. The idea of unification of Italy was born during the Napoleonic era, and it was named Risorgimento. Risorgimento was the given name of a national revival which led to the shaping of a unified Italy. Risorgimento was ended with the unification of Italy in 1870. .
In 1814 with the defeat of Napoleon in Waterloo, Napoleonic time was over. The dream of a united Italy had to wait for a while, because the great powers of The Vienna Settlement, Russia, Austria, Prussia and Britain were willing to make Italy a little kid and keep her under the control of Austria. The idea of Italian nationalism was a nightmare for the great powers. In opposite of the Napoleonic era, the Vienna peacemakers decided on breaking up Italy into many little sovereigns; therefore, boundaries were drawn again, as Lombardy and Venetia, Piedmont, Modena, Tuscany, Naples and Parma.