Nationalism is a feeling of pride and loyalty towards one's country. Nationalism was a key factor in the uniting such countries as Haiti, Italy, and Germany. The people in these nations were bound together by things such as race, language, and ancient customs. Many people helped in the unification of these countries, and helped bring people from all parts of their nations to come together. .
Italy was left completely fragmented by the settlements reached at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Congress divided territory among the victors of the Napoleonic Wars, and a number of European nations. Before 1848, a desire for the unity of Italy was limited to a small section of the aristocracy and the middle class. Camillo Cavour and Garibaldi had much to do with unifying all of the people and land in Italy. Cavour's policy was to secure for the Kingdom of Sardinia the diplomatic and military support of Napoleon III, the French emperor. The people of Italy had a series of elections in 1859 and 1860 to vote on all of the northern states in Italy, with the exception of Venetia, to join Sardinia. Garibaldi was the hero of the next phase of Italian unification. He and his army of "red shirts" conquered the states of Naples and Sicily, and with the help of Cavour, got two-thirds of the Papal States to join Sardinia. In 1870 the army marched into Rome without opposition, and the people of Rome voted for the unification of Italy.
The people of Haiti responsible for the revolt against the Europeans were slaves. Lead by Toussant L"Overture, the slaves thought of how to unite and defeat the French, who took control of the island. Since they were all of the same cultural background, it was much easier for them to find things in common with each other, therefore making it easier to pull together as one. With a strong leader in L"Overture it became easier to fight for what they wanted. They took full advantage of their cultural similarities and defeated the French army after they found the island was not worth fighting for, even though their leader Toussant L"Overture was lost in this battle.