Large numbers of people have been doing work for a long time pyramids and many other huge monuments and structures were built; armies and governments were organized; civilization spread over vast territories. All these took organization and management. There are writings from antiquity that suggest that systematic approaches to management and organization did evolve and were transmitted to others. However, other writings similarly suggest that Human Relations is the best approach to manage the contemporary business organization. In this paper, we will discuss the different approaches of the traditional operational approach and the systematic approach and how it differs and changes in different organizations. From there, we will be able to decipher if Scientific Management or Human Relations is more appropriate to the management of the contemporary business organization.
Organizations have to be managed and attempts have been made to generalize the analysis so that managers in organizations will be able to manage better. The Classical School of Thought focuses on efficiency and includes bureaucratic, scientific and administrative management. Bureaucratic management relies on a rational set of structured guidelines, such as rules and procedures, hierarchy, and a clear division of labour. Scientific management focuses on the "one best way- to do a job. Administrative management emphasizes the flow of information in the operation of the organization.
Scientific Management is one of the earliest theories of management, as espoused by FW Taylor. He set out to challenge management with his approach of "Scientific Management-, which promised increased efficiency through extreme specialization and tight control of tasks (including managers' as well as workers' tasks). The approach that Scientific Management takes, to manage through time study, work-study, industrial engineering, is an important part of the control procedures of many organizations.