The growing demand for public transport in megacities has serious effects on urban ecosystems, especially due to the increased atmospheric pollution and changes in land use patterns. An ecologically sustainable urban transport system could be obtained by an appropriate mix of alternative modes of transport resulting in the use of environmentally friendly fuels and land use patterns. Metro provides multiple benefits: reduction in air pollution, time saving to passengers, reduction in traffic congestion and fuel savings. There are incremental benefits and costs to a number of economic agents: government, private transporters, passengers, general public and unskilled labor.
1.2 Literature Review - Indian Context.
At present most Indian cities including Bangalore, are expanding in a fast pace and the city plans include development of urban activities. In the year 2006, National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) have listed some policies to reduce pollution, promote cleaner technologies, and encourage greater use of public transport by keeping Indian urban transport development in mind. City planners, the State Government, and the Government of India are trying various solutions to solve the overgrowing transport problem of Bangalore. It is important to note Bangalore population to vehicle ratio is close to 2:1, according to figures quoted by chief minister Siddaramaiah recently. According to Bangalore traffic police website, vehicle population is close to 48 lakh as on September, 2014. This large vehicle population is causing extreme congestion on city's roads. The side effects of the same includes slower average speeds, fuel wastage, heavy air pollution and a continued rise in the levels of road accidents in Bangalore. In order to deal with these problems Bangalore metro rail project has been introduced. Bangalore metro is suggested to be passengers' friendly through improved linkages and infrastructure.