The concept of "failed states " has long occupied a considerable place in international security and has been a topic of discussion and arguments (Call 2008). Although this concept has existed for decades, until the historical attacks of September 11th did it come to prominence and start receiving worldwide attention as a political phenomenon that could do harm to the global safety and security. In the age of globalization, state failure is becoming a growing concern for many foundations, think tanks and scholars, who have attempted to identify the root causes and come up with an agreed definition of the concept. However, there has been no consensus about the definitions of a "failed state ", "collapsed state " or "state failure"" (Silva 2012).
The following essay will start by presenting how a failed state should be defined. In this part, the history of "failed state ", the terms "state " and "failed ", and various definitions of a failed state will be discussed. In the second part, an analysis of different approaches accounting for a failed state and main contributors to state failure, considering the significance of geopolitical factors, will be provided. This analysis also includes examples of typical countries whose states are considered "failed ". The final part is a conclusion of the themes discussed throughout this essay.
II. How a Failed State Should be Defined.
History of failed states.
Despite the debates that have been raised about the concept of "failed states " over the last decade, this term has lasted together with the existence of the international state system, as a part of the political reality (Fraenkel 2004). Nguyen (2005) also states that the idea of failed states has long been a colonial concern. During the time of European expansion, many interventions by the powerful states emerged because of the failure of Pacific government. These powerful states wanted to conquer the weaker states for their own security and trade interests (Dorff 2000).