Governance simply means steering the affairs of an entity, organization or state. It relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power or verify performance. It also connotes the exercise of authority to bring about a clear and specific purpose by the instrumentality of a leader and the institution for the satisfaction of people. The main ingredients of governance are the governors ands the governed; the instrumentality of institutions or leadership; and a purposeful vision. In governance, there exist three important factors at play, foremost of which is the Vision which is "the reason for everything". Next to the vision are the beneficiaries, those for the sake and satisfaction of whom the vision is given and purposed. The last of all is the instrument that is the kind of leadership and institutions required to bring the vision to fruition for the satisfaction of the beneficiaries.
As a process, governance may operate in an organization of any size and it may function for any purpose, good or evil, for profit or not. A reasonable purpose of governance might aim to assure that a good result is produced while avoiding an undesirable pattern of bad circumstances. A government comprises a set of inter-related positions that govern and that use power, particularly coercive power. Politics provides the means by which governance of a country operates. In this regard, people choose their expectations by way of political activity; grant power through political action; and judge performance through political behavior.
Types of Governance.
A. Participatory Governance – This type of governance focuses on deepening democracy by ensuring citizen participation in the governance process of the state. The idea is that citizens should play a more direct role in public decision-making or at least engage more deeply with political issues. Government officials should also be responsive to this kind of citizen engagement.