In order to properly analyze any event that occurred in history, you must first try to have a clear understanding of why these events happened. In my opinion, the main motivators of events, trends, and conflicts conspiring in the 1500's through 1870's were religion, resources, riches, and power. As seen even today, religion is a very controversial topic, especially when the holder of certain beliefs believes his or her own are the only acceptable beliefs to have. A difference in beliefs can cause many conflicts, as shown throughout the chapters in the text. Additionally, without resources, man cannot live, let alone conquer. Resources allow us to prevail. To conquer, in turn, means to gain power and dominance over an area with resources men can use to their advantage. In the 1500's through 1870's, there was not much else to strive for besides status. With power comes both status and wealth, as well as riches. Historically, these seem to be the most valuable things a man can obtain. .
From what I presume to be a quest for power and resources, the rise of the Ottoman empire began to take place. The Ottoman sultans succeeded greatly in consolidating their empire between 1500-1600. In 1514 in Iran, the Ottomans defeated Persian Safavids who had opposed the Sunnite Ottomans. Three years later, in 1517, an open war gave way due to tensions between the Ottomans and the Mamluk Turks in the Middle East regarding control of the spice trade. Again, due to superior strength, the Ottomans prevailed and gained control of western Arabia (Sivers, 533). The Ottomans latter succeeded in gaining control of the majority of Hungary, earning them a large reign over 15 million inhabitants from Algeria, Yemen, Upper Egypt, and the northern shores of the Black Sea, giving them power over these areas and their inhabitants, as well as access to their resources (Sivers, 534). The Ottomans were determined to establish their dominance among multiple areas, establishing power and status as an empire to be both feared and respected, as they later proved to Phillip II.