Africa and Egypt are a great interest for many historians. Located in North Africa is the Nile River which flows into the Mediterranean. The Nile was an oasis in the middle of great deserts. This is the locations of one of the greatest civilizations the world has ever seen, the Egyptians.
It is believed that people migrated into the Sahara region from North Africa's Mediterranean coast. People along the upper Nile and in what would be the Nubian region were growing sorghum, millet, and wheat by 6000 B.C.E. At this time the Sahara was a rich land with rivers, lakes, and plentiful rainfall. Around 3500 B.C.E. the climate changed. Possibly due to overgrazing, North Africa changed from grass and woodland to dry desert. People fled from drying conditions and moved north and south. The few people who remained in the Sahara became known as the Berbers. .
The Nile became a fertile oasis in the harsh Sahara. The inundation of the Nile annually would leave behind fertile top soil. The Egyptians built canals and sluices to grow wheat, barley, and beans among other crops along with the raising of cattle, sheep, and pigs. The abundance of food allowed for a rise in the population greater then anywhere else in Africa. This led to the development of civilization, class divisions, and local governments. .
By about 3200 B.C.E. warring communities split Egypt into a northern and southern kingdom. These two kingdoms were very hostile towards each other engaging in many wars during the 2900's B.C.E. Legend has it that one of the kingdoms conquered the other under the rule of king Menes who would become the first king of Egypt. This brought peace to the land of Egypt that was protected by many natural boundaries from other potential invaders. Trade, however, did increase at this time. A s a result of trade the Egyptians came in contact with other civilizations and was able to adopt certain ideas from them. From Mesopotamia the Egyptians obtained bronze, shipbuilding techniques, and artistic motifs.