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Defenders of the Republic

             1 Origin of the triumvirate page 4.
             2 The consular elections of 60 BC page 6.
             3 Opposition to Caesar's land bill page 8.
             4 Caesar strikes back page 11.
             5 Conclusion page 14.
             The first triumvirate marked the fall of the Roman Republic. Power was now concentrated in the hands of three men who dominated the traditional institutions of Rome. Their dominance was virtually absolute, each one brought with him an asset allowing for political dominance which would last for more than a decade and bring about the fall of the old Republic. However the triumvirate met with potent resistance. The senate had its champions who still believed they could save the Republic of their ancestors and the mos maiorum. It is the question if they did it for their own gains, or that they truly believed they represented the only true government, what is obvious is that they fought until the end against the triumvirs. What did they do to prevent the rise of the triumvirate, how did they attempt to stop legislation and maintain control of the state, what form did their opposition take, how effective was it and how did Caesar the most active member of the triumvirate at the time respond to the challenges of the Boni, the hard liners of the conservative faction or Optimates in the senate.
             1 The origin of the triumvirate.
             After Pompey returned to Italy in 62 BC, once again covered in military glory, his campaigning days seemed at an end. He had achieved remarkable things, Rome's tribute had virtually been doubled by his efforts in the east and those lands seemed now duly pacified. The arrangements he made were very profitable for the Republic. However even as the public acclaimed him a hero, the senate was already deliberating how to leash the great man. Pompey was not a revolutionary, unlike Sulla who would go to any lengths, and did, to get his way Pompey seemed content to just simply retire as the greatest Roman of his time and the first man in Rome .

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