1) Four competing philosophies strongly influence the role of marketing and marketing activities within an organization. Name and briefly describe each of these four philosophies.
The four philosophies are production, sales, market, and social market orientations. These four competing philosophies strongly influence the role of the marketing and market activities within an organization. .
Production orientation is defined as: A philosophy that focuses on the internal capabilities of a firm rather than on the desires and needs of the marketplace. The goal is to focus on internal efficiency to achieve lower prices for consumers. It assumes that price is the critical variable in the purchase decision. It is when the management assesses its resources and questions: What can we do best, What can our engineers design, and What is easy to produce given our equipment. The goal is to make a lot and let the market come to them. .
Sales orientation is defined as: The idea that people will buy more goods and services if aggressive sales techniques are used and that high sales results in high profits. A sale orientation assumes that buyers resist purchasing items that are not essential and that consumers must be persuaded to buy. In other words, the sales orientation knows that they have to take the market to the people. Within the sales orientation it begins to develop a little bit of marketing strategy (marketing orientation, marketing concept).
Marketing concept is defined as: The idea that the social and economic justification for an organization's existence is the satisfaction of customers wants and needs while meeting organizational objectives, which leads to the .
Market orientation, defined as: Philosophy that assumes that a sale does not depend on an aggressive sales force but rather on a customer's decision to purchase a product. It is based on an understanding that a sale predominantly depends on the customers decision to purchase a product and on the customer's perception of the value of that product.