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             Imperialism .
             There are many different causes and effects of European Imperialism on the continent of Africa. These causes and effects had a big part in the change of the continent of Africa. .
             One general cause of Imperialism in the mid 1800s- mid 1900s is Nationalism. Nationalism is the belief that one should be loyal mainly to their nation, that is to the people with who they share a culture and history rather than to a king or empire. The Europeans view their empire as a measure of greatness. Another cause of Imperialism is Economics. The west was strengthened by the Industrial Revolution. Newly industrialized nations seeked new markets and raw materials. Another cause was racism and Ethnocentrism. The European nations compete for power and prestige and felt it was their duty to spread western culture. The European's wanted to spread their religion of Christianity.
             An immediate effect of new Imperialism was that the Europeans claim and conquered large empires in Africa and Asia. There was a mass scramble for Africa. The African colonies were desirable because Europeans wanted to possess a world empire and become a more powerful nation. They also wanted Africa's raw materials to fuel Europe's industries. They can also use the colonies as markets for Europe manufactured goods. Africa was known as the "Dark Continent" because there was nothing known about it, it was unexplored, and mysterious. In 1884-1885 came the Berlin Conference. The Berlin Conference was a formal agreement between various nations of Europe to divide the African continent. The nations involved were Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany. There were four rules established in order to claim territory in Africa. Make a formal announcement at claim, effectively occupy territory by building roads and railroads, Extend control from coast to interior, and negotiate a treaty with local peoples that would constitute a claim to sovereignty.

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