Up to the end of the 19th century, Russia was an autocratic(Leader having total power) country. His will was the sole source of law, of taxation and justice. He controlled the army and all the officials. Through his special position on the Holy Synod, he controlled even religious affairs. His autocratic rule was supported by the privileged nobles, who possessed land and serfs, and held all the chief offices in the Czar's administration. Nicholas II was Czar from 1896-1917, and his rule was the brute of political disarray. Nicholas II had continued the divine-right monarchy held by the Romanovs for many generations. From the day Russia coronated Nicholas II as Emperor, problems arose with the people. .
The mass of people were serfs. Serfs were 'slaves'. They worked on the estates of the nobles. They could be punished in any form by the nobles. They could even be sold as chattels by the nobles. Besides the serfs, there was a very small middle class in the towns. They were discontented with the backwardness of Russia.
As an autocrat, no other monarch in Europe claimed such large powers or stood so high above his subjects as Nicholas II. Autocracy was traditionally impatient and short-tempered. He wielded his power through his bureaucracy, which contained the most knowledgeable and skilled members of Russian high society. Like the Czar, the bureaucracy, or chinovniki, stood above the people and were always in danger of being poisoned by their own power. Nicholas II never took interest in public opinion, and seemed oblivious to what was happening around him. While industrilization increased and had reached to other countries, Russia found itself spending more money than ever due to tax problems. Nicholas II did not want foreign affairs with Russia's industry. He was convinced he could handle Russia himself.
In 1905, the famouse Russian revolution had occured between Czar and his people. Their were many causes that lead to this event originating from the poor peasents.