The Roman army was considered one of the greatest military forces of its time. That superiority was evident and displayed through its battles. The Roman's kept their style of tactical combat the same throughout its history. Much of its army was made up of infantry, with most soldiers being recruited from the poorer citizens. The Roman infantry consisted of 10 legions, which was made up of 3 to 4 thousand men all together. .
The Roman infantry became a feared force because it was well disciplined and well trained. From early times right to the 3rd century A.D, the Roman army was based on its legions. Its leader used the title of legatus. The leaders staff officers were called tribuni. Senior non-commissioned officers were called centurions, who varied in rank. The soldiers of the legion were picked and received pay for there service. .
The main tactical unit was the cohort. Every soldier was armed with a short sword called a gladius, which was capable of slashing and thrusting an enemy soldier. They also used a scutum shield, which was used as a means of defensive equipment. The lorica segmentata was strips of armor, which lay across the chest, stomach and over the shoulders. The Roman army included auxiliary infantry besides the legionaries. Rome's allies provided the auxiliary infantry.
Roman craft of siege was sophisticated for its time. The infantry would storm a town, in a testudo or tortoise formation. The front rank held their shields forward while the flank soldiers with shields facing out, and the rest held their shields above them, forming a roof. A mobile tower and battering rams were used, as well as siege artillery, consisting of catapults. Cavalry did not play a very important role during the battle, but was useful before and after battles. The cavalry was used for scouting and pursuit of defeated enemy.
Legions were formed in three lines the first consisted of four cohorts, and the second and the third were composed of three cohorts each.