New Deal was a national program issued by Franklin Roosevelt that lasted between 1933 and 1938. Its purpose was to offset the effects of the Depression by establishing federal programs of recovery, relief, and reform, or the three R's, using government intervention and federal money. The idea was to lower unemployment, which had reached an all-time high, restore prosperity and reinstate some of the Progressive ideas that had faded away. The central legacy of the New Deal was increased government involvement in the lives of the American people.
Several government-funded programs were created in the early thirties to aid economic and social dilemmas. The first of these acts was the Emergency Banking Act, which provided for federal bank inspections, and the Glass-Steagall Act provided insurance for depositors through the newly formed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which restored confidence in the banks. Two acts, one in 1933 and one in 1934, ordered detailed regulations for the securities market, enforced by the new Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Several bills were passed that provided mortgage relief for farmers and homeowners, such as the Home Owners" Loan Corporation (HOLC.) which not only bailed out mortgage-holding banks, it also enhanced the loyalties of the middle class to the Democratic party. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) provided several means to help raise agricultural prices, but the one most extensively used provided for government payments to farmers who destroyed or did not grow surplus crops. In 1933 the Federal Emergency Relief Administration was established and headed by Harry Hopkins. Its purpose was to expand existing relief grants to the states. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which proved to be the most popular of all the New Deal agencies, provided work relief for thousands of young men in government camps. The CCC emphasized reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage thereby conserving human and natural resources.