Case Study 1: Using FFA to analyse the status of primary education .
Bihar State is one of the least developed states in India, a fact which contributes significantly to the numbers of children out of school in the country. Various programmes, such as the Bihar Education Project and District Primary Education Projects, have been started to improve enrolment and retention of children in education and the quality of schooling at primary level. The author facilitated the session and FFA was employed to help identify those forces responsible for the poor state of primary education in the state. Figure depicts a force field diagram of primary education in Bihar, created by the group of education managers during the workshop. The participants first prepared a list of forces, driving and restraining, affecting primary education. They were asked to write the forces on small cards- only one force on each card. Separate colour cards were used for the two different types of forces. Once the cards were written, cards with similar forces were clubbed together and counted. The number of cards denoting the frequency of the force was an indicator of its strength. The cards were placed at different distances in such a way that the larger the distance, the greater the effect of the force on the status of primary education. Then the group looked at the forces from the point of view of training. They identified driving forces that could be further strengthened by training. Similarly restricting forces that could be weakened by training were also listed. FFA thus, helped in designing a training programme for education managers aimed at improving status of primary education in Bihar. .
When the group had previously discussed this issue without using the FFA tool, they could only identify a few causes and very few interventions. However, the use of FFA .
stimulated discussion and brought new points to light. .