Explain why Roosevelt introduced the New Deal.
There are a number of reasons why I think that Roosevelt introduced the New Deal, but the main reason in my view was to recover the USA from the Great Depression. Hoover failed to deal with the problems of the Depression, and Roosevelt's approaches and attitudes were different to Hoover's, he restored hope and built up confidence to the American society.
The economy was in such a bad way that Congress realised that drastic measures had to be taken. The New Deal programme had three main aims, Relief, Recovery, and Reform. To relieve extreme poverty, to feed the starving and to stop people losing their homes or farms. To revive the economy by getting industry going and to get people working again. Roosevelt also introduced the New Deal because he wanted to make the USA a better place for the general public, and to make the unemployed employed again.
By March 4th, 1933, when Roosevelt was inaugurated at the age of 51, the economic situation was desperate. Between 13 and 15 million Americans were unemployed. Of these, between 1 and 2 million people were wandering about the country looking for jobs. Hundreds of thousands squatted in tents or ramshackle dwellings in "Hoovervilles," makeshift villages on the outskirts of cities. Panic-stricken people hoping to rescue their deposits had forced 38 states to close their banks.
From the beginning, Roosevelt tried to restore popular confidence. "The only thing we have to fear," he said in his inaugural address, "is fear itself--nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror." He added that he would not stand by and watch the Depression deepen. If necessary, he would "ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis--broad executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe." He then closed the rest of the banks--declaring a "bank holiday"--and called Congress into special session.