The theory of intelligence has been a subject of confusion its conception. The search for one explicit definition for intelligence has been pondered over for centuries, and to this day has never been fully achieved. Many have attempted to define intelligence, but none have been impervious to ridicule. Just about all of these definitions, in some way or another, to prove less than efficient for everyone to except. Intelligence can not be defined as artificially, culturally, or emotionally determined because such definitions are so limited. Rather, intelligence encompasses all three of the elements to create a full breath of intelligence.
John Haugeland discussed perhaps one of the most controversial and logical theories on intelligence in his article, "Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea". "We are, at root, computers ourselves" (72). Haugeland feels artificial intelligence, at times, can be smarter the human brain. To support his statement he uses the Turing's Test, which was proposed by Alan Turing. Turing was a brilliant man disturbed by "fruitless disputes" concerning word meanings. Turing's test was based on a game called the "imitation game," played by three mutual strangers. Two are "witnesses" of opposite sex: the third player, the "interrogator," attempts to guess the difference between the two witnesses. The man is trying to fool the "interrogator" by pretending to be the woman. The second "witness", the woman, is trying to help the "interrogator". If the "interrogator" guesses right, the woman wins. If the "interrogator" guesses wrong, the man is right. To eliminate clues, teletype transmits all questions and comments. The basic goal of this experiment is to test the general intelligence of a person through communication. How well a person understands the situation and wording determines their intelligence. Turing's main goal, however, was to substitute one variable (the male) with a computer.