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India And Kenya

            Exam Question #2: Affect of technological changes on traditional social organization in India and Kenya.
             Prior to the colonization of India and Kenya, theses societies had traditional patterns of social relations. It was technological changes brought by the British that had a profound impact of the social organizations of both societies. With the exploration and examination of both the traditional and modern social organizations of India and Kenya, the impact of technological development will clearly demonstrate it's profound impact of both societies.
             The social structure of the Punjabi Village in India was traditionally a caste society. Their mode of economic exchange was based on tradition and caste norms. The Punjabis were, for the most part, a society that maintained equilibrium by being self-sufficient. The use of a plow and draft animal was characteristic of the cultivation found in the traditional Punjabi social organization. The first arrival of the British in 1849 did not profoundly affect the social organization because the new laws established by the British did not provide for the peasants and lower classes to increase his production. This is exemplified in the following quote from Technology, Values and Society. " the peasant's inability to accumulate or retain wealth made any kind of innovative technological investment in their land appear to be impractical and useless. Thus, the centuries-old simple agricultural technology persisted (page 92). This domination of traditional social organization in India did not last forever.
             In the 1930's, land consolidation was introduced so that each farmer had a continuous piece of land opposed to having several fragmented parcels. Also pivotal in promoting technological innovation was the introduction of banks and moneylenders through the "Intensive Agricultural Development Program." With these new systems, it made it possible for farmers to get loans to buy modern farm equipment for their new pieces of land.

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